ALTER TABLE Syntax


ALTER [IGNORE] TABLE tbl_name
[alter_specification [, alter_specification] ...]
[partition_options]
alter_specification:
table_options
| ADD [COLUMN] col_name column_definition
[FIRST | AFTER col_name ]
| ADD [COLUMN] (col_name column_definition,...)
| ADD {INDEX|KEY} [index_name]
[index_type] (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ...
| ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] PRIMARY KEY
[index_type] (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ...
| ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]]
UNIQUE [INDEX|KEY] [index_name]
[index_type] (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ...
| ADD FULLTEXT [INDEX|KEY] [index_name]
(index_col_name,...) [index_option] ...
| ADD SPATIAL [INDEX|KEY] [index_name]
(index_col_name,...) [index_option] ...
| ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]]
FOREIGN KEY [index_name] (index_col_name,...)
reference_definition
| ALGORITHM [=] {DEFAULT|INPLACE|COPY}
| ALTER [COLUMN] col_name {SET DEFAULT literal | DROP DEFAULT}
| CHANGE [COLUMN] old_col_name new_col_name column_definition
[FIRST|AFTER col_name]
| LOCK [=] {DEFAULT|NONE|SHARED|EXCLUSIVE}
| MODIFY [COLUMN] col_name column_definition
[FIRST | AFTER col_name]
| DROP [COLUMN] col_name
| DROP PRIMARY KEY
| DROP {INDEX|KEY} index_name
| DROP FOREIGN KEY fk_symbol
| DISABLE KEYS
| ENABLE KEYS
| RENAME [TO|AS] new_tbl_name
| ORDER BY col_name [, col_name] ...
| CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET charset_name [COLLATE collation_name]
| [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name [COLLATE [=] collation_name]
| DISCARD TABLESPACE
| IMPORT TABLESPACE
| FORCE
| ADD PARTITION (partition_definition)
| DROP PARTITION partition_names
| TRUNCATE PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
| COALESCE PARTITION number
| REORGANIZE PARTITION partition_names INTO (partition_definitions)
| EXCHANGE PARTITION partition_name WITH TABLE tbl_name
| ANALYZE PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
| CHECK PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
| OPTIMIZE PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
| REBUILD PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
| REPAIR PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
| REMOVE PARTITIONING
index_col_name:
col_name [(length)] [ASC | DESC]
index_type:
USING {BTREE | HASH}
index_option:
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
| index_type
| WITH PARSER parser_name
| COMMENT 'string'
table_options:
table_option [[,] table_option] ... (see CREATE TABLE options)
partition_options:
(see CREATE TABLE options)

destroy indexes, change the type of existing columns, or rename columns or the table itself. You can also change characteristics such as the storage engine used for the table or the table comment.

Partitioning-related clauses for ALTER TABLE can be used with partitioned tables for repartitioning, for adding, dropping, merging, and splitting partitions, and for performing partitioning maintenance. For more information, see ALTER TABLE Partition Operations. If an ALTER TABLE statement contains a partitioning operation, that must be the only operation specified in the statement.

Following the table name, specify the alterations to be made. If none are given, ALTER TABLE does nothing.

The syntax for many of the permissible alterations is similar to clauses of the CREATE TABLE statement. See CREATE TABLE Syntax, for more information.

Some operations may result in warnings if attempted on a table for which the storage engine does not support the operation. These warnings can be displayed with SHOW WARNINGS. See SHOW WARNINGS Syntax.

For information on troubleshooting ALTER TABLE, see Problems with ALTER TABLE.